10th Dhul Hijjah – Yawmun-Nahr
The third day of Hajj is the 10th day, known in Arabic as Yawmun-Nahr (the day of sacrifice).
There are two opinions on the origin of this name:
1. The name refers to an incident when Allah commanded Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Isma’il. Sacrifice in Arabic is referred to as nahr. Some scholars believe the sacrifice took place on this day of the year.
2. The name refers to the actual practice of sacrificing animals commissioned by pilgrims on this day.
The 10th day—also known as Eidul-Adha—is the most blessed and virtuous day in the entire year. The Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam said, “The best day with Allah is Yawmun-Nahr and then Yawmul-Qarr (the 11th day).” Recorded in Ahmad.
What do pilgrims do on the 10th day of Hajj?
In the early hours of Yawmun-Nahr, after Fajr, most pilgrims will begin their day at the plains of Muzdalifah. Once they complete the morning prayer they remain in Muzdalifah until close to sunrise. They then march to Mina.
On this day, pilgrims are obliged to perform four specific rites of Hajj; these four do not have to be performed in any specific order:
1. To stone the major pillar or jamarah aqabah with seven stones.
2. To offer a sacrificial animal whether by hand which is the most preferable method or by proxy. This rite is an obligation on those who perform the Hajj in the form of tamattu’ or qiran in which pilgrims perform both Umrah and Hajj, joined or separate. Anyone who performs Hajj as a single ritual without Umrah is not required to offer the sacrifice.
3. To perform tawaf and sa’i. The tawaf is known as tawaful-ifadah or tawafuz-ziyarah.
4. To shave the head or shorten the hair for men, and to clip a bit of the hair for women.
The pilgrim remains in a full state of ihram until these rites are fulfilled. He is in a partial state of ihram as long as the tawaf remains incomplete. Once the tawaf is complete, the pilgrim is permitted to leave the state of ihram.
Pilgrims then return to Mina to spend the night (or most of the night) in their camps.
11-13th Dhul Hijjah – Ayyamut-Tashriq
These are the final days of Hajj. They are called Ayyamut-Tashriq (the days of Tashriq).
Perhaps the strongest opinion on the origin of this name is that in the past pilgrims used to slice the meat they acquired from their sacrificial animals, season it with salt and then let it dry in the sun. The dehydration of the meat allowed pilgrims to preserve it from spoiling especially on long journeys. This process is called Tashriq and it preceded refrigeration.
The days of Tashriq are considered days of celebration and worship. It is recommended to enjoy these days by feasting. The Messenger of Allah said, “The days of Tashriq are days of eating and drinking.” Recorded in Muslim.
What do pilgrims do in these last few days?
1. Pilgrims are required to spend most of the night, preferably the entire night and day, in Mina.
2. Pilgrims recite the takbir (Allahu Akbar) until the end of the Ḥajj rite. It is recommended for pilgrims and others to end the Hajj with the remembrance of Allah.In fact, concluding acts of worship with Allah’s remembrance is a common practice, “And when you have completed the prayer, remember Allah standing, sitting, or (lying) on your sides [4: 103],” and “And when the prayer has concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah, and remember Allah often that you may succeed [62: 10],” and “And when you have completed your rites, remember Allah like your (previous) remembrance of your fathers or with much greater remembrance [2: 200].”
3. The most important practice during these days is throwing stones at the jamarat site (stoning site).The timing of this rite is critical. The standard opinion is that it should be completed after zawal or when the time of zuhr is already in until right before sunset.
After completing the throwing at a station/pillar, pilgrims stand on the side, away from the traffic, facing Makkah and raise their hands with du’a and praise. They then then move on to the next station. There is no du’a at the last station (major). Thereafter, they return to Mina.
4. The fifth day of Hajj is the 12th of Dhul Hijjah. Any pilgrim who wishes to leave early can end his Hajj after completing the throwing of that day. However, the pilgrim must leave Mina before sunset. If he remains in the vicinity beyond sunset then he is required to stay there for an extra night, the 13th, which is the last and final day of Ayyamut-Tashriq.
5. Once pilgrims have completed all the essentials of Hajj, making sure nothing of their obligations are left without being fulfilled or compensated for, they head to Al-Masjid Al-Haram for the final rite. The sunnah of the Messenger of Allah sallallahu ‘alayhi wa sallam is to perform tawaful-wida’ (farewell tawaf) right before leaving Makkah. It is considered obligatory for those who are able.
You will find, as the Hajj season draws to a close, many pilgrims depart Makkah with a mixture of sadness and happiness. Nevertheless, they all leave with hope that their Hajj was mabrur (faultless), and that Allah accepted their offerings during these days of great sacrifice. They all leave with hope that this experience was a true redemption from sin and an emancipation from the painful snares of both worlds.
The Days of Hajj by Yaser Birjas
Beneficial Creedal Lessons by Abdur-Razzaq Al-Badr